1950 2950

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History

In the 1950s, forestry engineer Norman Franz experimented with an early form of water jet cutter to cut lumber. However, the technology did not advance notably until the 1970s when Mohamed Hashish created a technique to add abrasives to the water jet cutter. Today the water jet is unparalleled in many aspects of cutting and has changed the way many products are manufactured. Many types of water jets exist today, including plain water jets, abrasive water jets, percussive water jets, cavitation jets and hybrid jets.

Operation

The cutter is commonly connected to a high-pressure water pump where the water is then ejected from the nozzle, cutting through the material by spraying it with the jet of high-speed water. Additives in the form of suspended grit or other abrasives, such as garnet and aluminum oxide, can assist in this process.

Benefits

An important benefit of the water jet cutter is the ability to cut material without interfering with the material's inherent structure as there is no "heat-affected zone" or HAZ. Minimizing the effects of heat allows metals to be cut without harming or changing intrinsic properties.

Water jet cutters are also capable of producing rather intricate cuts in material. The kerf, or width, of the cut can be changed by changing parts in the nozzle, as well as the type and size of abrasive. Typical abrasive cuts are made with a kerf in the range of 0.04" to 0.05" (1.016 to 1.27 mm), but can be as narrow as 0.02" (0.508 mm). Non-abrasive cuts are normally 0.007" to 0.013" (0.178 to 0.33 mm), but can be as small as 0.003" (0.076 mm), which is approximately the size of a human hair.

These small cutters can make very small detail possible in a wide range of applications.

Water jet is considered a "green" technology. Water jets produce no hazardous waste, reducing waste disposal costs. They can cut off large pieces of reusable scrap material that might have been lost using traditional cutting methods. Parts can be closely nested to maximize material use, and the water jet saves material by creating very little kerf. Water jets use very little water (a half gallon to approximately one gallon per minute depending on cutting head orifice size), and the water that is used can be recycled using a closed-looped system. Waste water usually is clean enough to filter and dispose of down a drain. The garnet abrasive is a non-toxic natural substance that can be recycled for repeated use. Garnet usually can be disposed of in a landfill. Water jets also eliminate airborne dust particles, smoke, fumes, and contaminates from cutting materials such as asbestos and fiberglass. This greatly improves the work environment and reduces problems arising from operator exposure.

Versatility

A water jet cutter creating a specialist tool

Because the nature of the cutting stream can be easily modified the water jet can be used in nearly every industry; there are many different materials that the water jet can cut. Some of them have unique characteristics that require special attention when cutting. Each material cut will have some unique characteristics that have to be taken into account.

Materials commonly cut with a water jet include rubber, foam, plastics, composites, stone, tile, metals, food, paper and much more. Materials that cannot be cut with a water jet are tempered glass, diamonds and certain ceramics.

Water jet cuts are not typically limited by the thickness of the material, and are capable of cutting materials over eighteen inches (45 cm) thick. The penetrating power of these tools has led to the exploration of their use as anti-tank weapons but, due to their short range and the advent of composite armour, research was discontinued.

Availability

Commercial water jet cutting systems are available from manufacturers all over the world, in a range of sizes, and with water pumps capable of a range of pressures. Typical water jet cutting machines have a working envelope as small as a few square feet, or up to hundreds of square feet. Ultra-high pressure water pumps are available from as low as 40,000 psi (276 MPa) up to 90,000 psi (621 MPa).

Process

There are six main process characteristics to water jet cutting:

Uses a high velocity stream of abrasive particles suspended in a stream of Ultra High Pressure Water (30,000 - 90,000 psi) which is produced by a water jet intensifier pump.

Is used for machining a large array of materials, including heat-sensitive, delicate or very hard materials.

Produces no heat damage to workpiece surface or edges.

Nozzles are typically made of sintered boride.

Produces a taper of less than 1 degree on most cuts, which can be reduced or eliminated entirely by slowing down the cut process.

Distance of nozzle from workpiece affects the size of the kerf and the removal rate of material. Typical distance is .125".

Temperature is not as much of a factor.

Edge quality

Edge quality for water jet cut parts is defined with the numbers 1 through 5. Lower numbers indicate rougher edge finish; higher numbers are smoother. For thin materials, the difference in cutting speed for Quality 1 could be as much as 3 times faster than the speed for Quality 5. For thicker materials, Quality 1 could be 6 times faster than Quality 5. For example, 4 thick Aluminum Q5 would be 0.72 ipm (18 mm/min) and Q1 would be 4.2 ipm (107 mm/min), 5.8 times faster.

Multi-axis cutting

Main article: Multiaxis machining

A 5-Axis Waterjet Cutting Head

A 5-Axis Waterjet Part

With recent advances in control and motion technology, 5-axis water jet cutting (abrasive and pure) has become a reality. Where the normal axes on a water jet are named X (back/forth), Y(left/right) and Z (up/down), a 5-axis system will typically add an A axis (angle from perpendicular) and C axes (rotation around the Z-axis). Depending on the cutting head, the maximum cutting angle for the A axis can be anywhere from 55, 60, or in some cases even 90 degrees from vertical. As such, 5-axis cutting opens up a wide range of applications that can be machined on a water jet cutting machine.

A 5-axis cutting head can be used to cut 4-axis parts, where the bottom surface geometries are shifted a certain amount to produce the appropriate angle and the Z-axis remains at one height. This can be useful for applications like weld preparation where a bevel angle needs to be cut on all sides of a part that will later be welded, or for taper compensation purposes where the kerf angle is transferred to the waste material - thus eliminating the taper commonly found on water jet-cut parts. A 5-axis head can cut parts where the Z-axis is also moving along with all the other axis. This full 5-axis cutting could be used for cutting contours on various surfaces of formed parts.

Because of the angles that can be cut, part programs may need to have additional cuts to free the part from the sheet. Attempting to slide a complex part at a severe angle from a plate can be difficult without appropriate relief cuts.

References

^ About waterjets, archived from the original on 2010-02-13, http://www.webcitation.org/5nWaNTDGA, retrieved 2010-02-13. 

^ "Company | Flow International Corporation". Flowcorp.com. http://www.flowcorp.com/about-flow.cfm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 

^ a b "Company". Jet Edge. http://www.jetedge.com/content.cfm?fuseaction=dsp_applications_101. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 

^ "Company | WARDJet". WARDJet.com. http://www.wardjet.com/learnmore.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 

^ "Jet Edge 90,000 PSI X-Stream Waterjet Intensifier Pump". 2009-01-25. http://www.jetedge.com/content.cfm?fuseaction=dsp_products_detail&product_ID=120. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 

^ "Company | Global Rebar Services". grswaterjet.co.uk. http://www.grswaterjet.co.uk/pumps.html. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 

^ "Waterjet Relationship Parameters". http://www.wardjet.com/02-waterjet-relationship-parameters.html. 

^ a b c "5-Axis Waterjet Cutting". http://www.wardjet.com/5-axis.asp. 

External links

Waterjets.org

How Water Jets Work, HowStuffWorks.com video

v d e

Metalworking

 

Tools

Cutting machines

Water jet cutter  Band saw  Cold saw  Laser  Miter saw  Plasma

Cutting tools

Broach  Burr  Chisel  Counterbore  Countersink  End mill  File  Guillotine shear  Hand scraper  Milling cutter  Nibbler  Reamer  Throatless shear  Tipped tool  Tool bit

Forming tools

Brake  Die  English Wheel  Flypress  Hydraulic press  Machine press  Punch press  Stamping press

Hand tools

Clamp  Combination square  Drift pin  File card  Hacksaw  Hammer  Hand scraper  Machinist square  Magnetic base  Needlegun scaler  Pipe and tube bender  Pliers  Punch  Saw piercing  Scriber  Tap and die  Tongs  Vise  Workbench  Wrench

Machine tooling

Angle plate  Chuck  Collet  Jig  Fixture  Indexing head  Lathe center  Machine taper  Magnetic base  Mandrel  Rotary table  Wiggler

Measuring instruments

Bore gauge  Caliper  Comparator  Dial indicator  Engineer's blue  Feeler  Center gauge and fishtail gauge  Gauge block  Gauge  Go-NoGo  Machinist square  Marking blue  Marking gauge  Marking out  Micrometer  Radius gauge  Scale  Sine bar  Spirit level  Straightedge  Surface plate  Tape measure  Thread pitch  Height gauge  Vernier scale  Wiggler

Smithing tools

Anvil  Forge  Fuller  Hardy hole  Hardy tools  Pritchel  Slack tub  Steam hammer  Swage block  Trip hammer

Casting  Fabrication  Forming  Jewellery  Machining  Metallurgy  Smithing  Tools & Terminology  Welding

v d e

Types of tools

Cutting tools

Blade  Bolt cutter  Broach  Ceramic tile cutter  Chisel  Coping saw  Countersink  Diamond blade  Diamond tool  Drill bit  Endmill  File  Fretsaw  Froe  Glass cutter  Grater  Hacksaw  Hand saw  Knife  Milling cutter  Miter saw  Pipecutter  Plane  Razor  Reamer  Saw  Scalpel  Scissors  Slasher  Surform  Switchblade  Tap and die  Tool bit  Utility knife  Water jet cutter  Wire cutter  Wire stripper

Garden tools

Adze  Axe  Billhook  Bow saw  Cultivator  Earth auger  Edger  Garden fork  Garden hose  Garden trowel  Hedge trimmer  Hoe  Hori hori  Irrigation sprinkler  Lawn aerator  Lawn mower  Lawn sweeper  Leaf blower  Loppers  Machete  Mattock  Pickaxe  Pitchfork  Plough (plow)  Pruning shears (secateurs)  Rake  Roller  Rotary tiller  Scythe  Sickle  Spade  Splitting maul  String trimmer

Hand tools

Block plane  BNC inserter/remover  Brace  Bradawl  Breaker bar  Broom  Brush  Card scraper  Caulking gun  Clamp  Crimping pliers  Crowbar  Fish tape  Hammer  Hawk  Hex key  Locking pliers  Mallet  Miter box  Nut driver  Pipe wrench  Pliers  Punch  Punch down tool  Putty knife  Ratchet  Scratch awl  Screwdriver  Sledgehammer   Sponge  Squeegee  Staple gun  Stitching awl  Torque wrench  Trowel  Upholstery hammer  Wrench (spanner)

Machine tools

Broaching machine  Drill press  Gear shaper  Grinding machine  Hobbing machine  Jig borer  Lathe  Metalworking lathe  Milling machine  Planer  Screw machine  Shaper  Turret lathe

Power tools

Angle grinder  Band saw  Belt sander  Chainsaw  Chop saw  Circular saw  Concrete saw  Crusher  Die grinder  Drill  Glue gun  Grinding machine  Heat gun  Impact wrench  Jigsaw  Jointer  Nail gun  Radial arm saw  Random orbital sander  Reciprocating saw  Rotary tool  Router table  Sander  Scroll saw  Soldering gun  Soldering iron  Table saw  Thickness planer  Wood router  Wood shaper

Measuring &

Alignment tools

Caliper  Jig  Micrometer  Pencil  Plumb-bob  Ruler  Sliding T bevel  Spirit level  Square  Tape measure

Other

Antique tools  Halligan bar  Kelly tool  Ladder  Thau claw  Toolbox  Vise  Workbench

Categories: Cutting machines | Metalworking cutting tools | Woodworking machinesHidden categories: Articles needing cleanup from February 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles needing additional references from February 2009 | All articles needing additional references

About the Author

I am Frbiz Site writer, reports some information about fuel accumulator , alfa romeo 164 parts.

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