Ibm Controller

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Who invented the first pc?

Who invented the first pc or the first pc components?

hi alan
the first p.c was called "IBM model number 5150" and was introduced by ibm on the August 12, 1981
It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida.
The original PC had a version of Microsoft BASIC —IBM Cassette BASIC— in ROM. The CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) video card could use a standard television for display; the other option that was offered by IBM is a MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) and a monochrome display model 5151. The standard storage device is cassette tape. A floppy disk drive is an optional extra; no factory-installed hard disk was available. It had only five expansion slots; maximum memory using IBM parts is 256 kilobytes, 64 kB on the main board and three 64 kB expansion cards. The processor is an Intel 8088 (early 1978 version, later were 1978/81/2 versions of intel chip, second-sourced AMDs were used after 1983) running at 4.77 MHz (4/3 the standard NTSC color burst frequency of 3.579545 MHz), which could be replaced with a NEC V20 for a slight increase in processing speed. An Intel 8087 co-processor could also be added for enhanced mathematical processing power. IBM sold it in configurations with 16 kB or 64 kB of RAM preinstalled using either nine or thirty-six 16 kBit DRAM chips. (As was common at the time, an extra bit is used for parity checking of memory.) The IBM 5161 Expansion Chassis was eventually released and allowed for more expansion boards to be installed as well as additional hard drives.
The original PC proved too expensive for the home market, but was an unexpectedly large success with businesses. The "IBM Personal Computer XT" is an enhanced machine that was designed for business use. It has 8 expansion slots and a 10 megabyte hard disk. It can take 256 kB of memory on the main board (now that 64 Kbit DRAM has been introduced); later models are expandable to 640 kB. (The 384 kB of BIOS ROM + video RAM space fills the rest of the one megabyte address space of the 8088 CPU.) It was usually sold with a Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA) video card. Te processor is a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 and the expansion bus 8-bit Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) with XT bus architecture.
The "IBM Personal Computer/AT", announced August 1984, uses an Intel 80286 processor, originally at 6 MHz. It has a 16-bit ISA bus and 20 MB hard drive. A faster model, running at 8 MHz, was introduced in 1986. IBM made some attempt at marketing it as a multi-user machine, but it sold mainly as a faster PC for power users. Early PC/ATs were plagued with reliability problems, in part because of some software and hardware incompatibilities, but mostly related to the internal 20 MB hard disk. While some people blamed IBM's hard disk controller card and others blamed the hard disk manufacturer Computer Memories Inc. (CMI), the IBM controller card worked fine with other drives, including CMI's 33-megabyte model. The problems introduced doubt about the computer and, for a while, even about the 286 architecture in general, but after IBM replaced the 20 MB CMI drives, the PC/AT proved reliable and became a lasting industry standard.
All IBM personal computers are software compatible with each other in general, but not every program will work in every machine. Some programs are time sensitive to a particular speed class. Older programs will not take advantage of newer higher-resolution display standards.
The main circuit board in an IBM PC is called the motherboard. This carries the CPU and memory, and has a bus with slots for expansion cards.
The bus used in the original PC became very popular, and was subsequently named ISA. It is in use to this day in computers for industrial use. Later, requirements for higher speed and more capacity forced the development of new versions. IBM introduced the MCA bus with the PS/2 line. The VESA Local Bus allowed for up to three, much faster 32-bit cards, and the EISA architecture was developed as a backward compatible standard including 32-bit card slots, but it only sold well in high-end server systems. The lower-cost and more general PCI bus was introduced in 1994 and has now become ubiquitous.
The motherboard is connected by cables to internal storage devices such as hard disks, floppy disks and CD-ROM drives. These tend to be made in standard sizes, such as 3.5" (90 mm) and 5.25" (133.4 mm) widths, with standard fixing holes. The case also contains a standard power supply unit (PSU) which is either an AT or ATX standard size.
Intel 8086 and 8088-based PCs require expanded memory (EMS) boards to work with more than one megabyte of memory. The original IBM PC AT used an Intel 80286 processor which can access up to 16 megabytes of memory (though standard DOS applications cannot use more than one megabyte without using additional APIs.) Intel 80286-based computers running under OS/2 can work with the maximum memory.
hope this helps
good luck mate !

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